Thursday, September 28, 2023

Neonatal Hypertension

Background

Advances in the ability to identify, evaluate, and care for infants with hypertension, coupled with advances in the practice of neonatology in general, have led to an increased awareness of hypertension in modern neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This article provides an overview of the differential diagnosis of hypertension in the neonate, the optimal diagnostic evaluation of the disease, and immediate and long-term antihypertensive therapy. (See Presentation, DDx, Workup, Treatment, and Medication.)

Blood pressure (BP) in newborns depends on various factors, including gestational age, postnatal age, and birth weight. Hypertension can be observed in various situations in the modern NICU and is especially common in infants who have undergone umbilical arterial catheterization. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to determination of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. (See Etiology, Presentation, and Workup.)

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