Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), also known as Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome and polydystrophic dwarfism, which is inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait, results from the deficiency of N- acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (arylsulfatase B) activity and the lysosomal accumulation of dermatan sulfate. MPS VI is characterized by somatic features but not by mental retardation.
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of inherited disorders that result from the deficiency of 1 or more of the lysosomal enzymes required for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) catabolism. GAGs, which are a major constituent of connective tissues, are long-chain complex carbohydrates that are usually linked to proteins to form proteoglycans and include chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate, heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. Because GAGs are primarily found in connective tissue, the sites of pathology primarily include the skeleton, heart valves, and other areas with connective tissue stroma.
The clinical features of the MPSs result from lysosomal accumulation of partially degraded or undegraded GAGs and typically include coarse facies, corneal clouding, organomegaly, joint stiffness, dysostosis multiplex, hernias, short stature, and, in some disorders, mental retardation.
The specific enzymatic deficiency and the resultant pattern of GAG degradation products determine the phenotype of each disorder. In general, dermatan, keratan, and chondroitin sulfate degradation products are associated with visceral manifestations, whereas the accumulation of heparan sulfate degradation products may be associated with mental deficiency.