Maxillofacial fractures result from blunt or penetrating injury. Blunt injuries are far more common, resulting from vehicular accidents, altercations, sporting-related trauma, occupational injuries, and falls. Penetrating injuries mainly are the result of gunshot wounds, stabbings, and explosions.
Hippocrates described an array of facial injuries as long ago as 400 BCE. During the early 20th century, Sir Harold Gilles, father of plastic surgery, taught army personnel about breathing problems in patients with facial injuries and to place them supine to maintain an airway. René Le Fort described 3 basic types of fractures. Endotracheal anesthesia and radiography developed during the First World War led to a better understanding and treatment of facial fractures. During the Second World War, a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of facial fractures continued to improve the outcomes of severely injured soldiers. Advent of CT reconstruction of facial bones, along with new surgical techniques, has dramatically improved the final appearance patients who have sustained bony injuries.
See the image below.
Anterior and lateral views of the frontal sinus. These figures demonstrate the relative thickness of the anterior and posterior tables, as well as the relationship of the frontal sinus to the orbits, ethmoid sinuses, and anterior cranial fossa.