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Octopus Envenomation


Octopuses, which are organisms of the class Cephalopoda in the phylum Mollusca, are generally harmless and unlikely to be aggressive unless provoked.

Their bites are rarely life threatening, except for the bite of the greater blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena lunulata and the southern blue-ringed octopus (also known as the Australian spotted octopus) Hapalochlaena maculosa, which are found in coastal waters and tide pools around Australia and other Western Pacific tidal pools.
A third species, the blue-lined octopus Hapalochlaena fasciata, has also been described. These octopuses grow up to 20 cm in length with tentacles extended. They are normally light-colored with dark brown bands and blue rings or patches. When disturbed, their bodies darken, and the blue circles turn iridescent blue. Their venom can be released into the water to paralyze their prey, but its effects on humans primarily occur by injection of the venom upon biting.

The blue-ringed octopus is shown below.

Blue-ringed octopus. Image courtesy of Simon Dubbi

Blue-ringed octopus. Image courtesy of Simon Dubbin.

See Deadly Sea Envenomations, a Critical Images slideshow, to help make an accurate diagnosis.

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