Hypovolemic shock refers to a medical or surgical condition in which rapid fluid loss results in multiple organ failure due to inadequate circulating volume and subsequent inadequate perfusion.
Endothelium plays a critical role in vascular physiological, pathophysiological, and reparative processes. The functions of the endothelium are highly altered following hypovolemic shock due to ischemia of the endothelial cells and by reperfusion due to resuscitation with fluids. Due to oxygen deprivation, endothelial cell apoptosis is induced following hypovolemic shock.
Most often, hypovolemic shock is secondary to rapid blood loss (hemorrhagic shock).
Acute external blood loss secondary to penetrating trauma and severe GI bleeding disorders are 2 common causes of hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock can also result from significant acute internal blood loss into the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
Two common causes of rapid internal blood loss are solid organ injury and rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Hypovolemic shock can result from significant fluid (other than blood) loss. Two examples of hypovolemic shock secondary to fluid loss include refractory gastroenteritis and extensive burns. The remainder of this article concentrates mainly on hypovolemic shock secondary to blood loss and the controversies surrounding the treatment of this condition. The reader is referred to other articles for discussions of the pathophysiology and treatment for hypovolemic shock resulting from losses of fluid other than blood.
The many life-threatening injuries experienced during the wars of the 1900s have significantly affected the development of the principles of hemorrhagic shock resuscitation. During World War I, W.B. Cannon recommended delaying fluid resuscitation until the cause of the hemorrhagic shock was repaired surgically. Crystalloids and blood were used extensively during World War II for the treatment of patients in unstable conditions. Experience from the Korean and Vietnam wars revealed that volume resuscitation and early surgical intervention were paramount for surviving traumatic injuries resulting in hemorrhagic shock. These and other principles helped in the development of present guidelines for the treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock. However, recent investigators have questioned these guidelines, and today, controversies exist concerning the optimal treatment of hemorrhagic shock.
The prognosis is dependent on the degree of volume loss.