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HomePulmonologyVentilator-Associated Pneumonia Overview of Nosocomial Pneumonias

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Overview of Nosocomial Pneumonias

Overview of Nosocomial Pneumonias

Ventilator-associated and hospital-acquired pneumonia

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is pneumonia that develops 48 hours or longer after mechanical ventilation is given by means of an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) results from the invasion of the lower respiratory tract and lung parenchyma by microorganisms. Intubation compromises the integrity of the oropharynx and trachea and allows oral and gastric secretions to enter the lower airways.

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is pneumonia that develops 48 hours or longer after admission to a hospital. HAP is the second most common nosocomial infection. HAP increases a patient’s hospital stay by approximately 7-9 days and can increase hospital costs by an average of $40,000 per patient.

Health care–associated pneumonia

Health care–associated pneumonia is pneumonia that occurs in persons in one of the following groups:

Patients who have been hospitalized in an acute care facility for 2 or more days within 90 days of the infection

Residents of a nursing home or long-term care facility

Patients who received intravenous antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy, or wound care within the last 30 days of the current infection

Patients who receive hemodialysis in any setting

Patient considerations

Multiple factors should be considered when addressing the issues of HAP and VAP. These factors include the following:

Whether or not to intubate the patient

The route of intubation or placement of tubes

Feeding the patient

Body positioning

Prevention of stress-related bleeding

Prevention of deep venous thrombosis

Use of antibiotics and control of colonization

For other discussions on pneumonia, see the following:

Mycoplasma Pneumonia

Bacterial Pneumonia

Viral Pneumonia

Imaging Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia

Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Nosocomial Pneumonia

Aspiration Pneumonia

Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci Pneumonia

Fungal Pneumonia

Pneumonia, Immunocompromised

Nursing Home Acquired Pneumonia

Chlamydial Pneumonias

Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia

Imaging Typical Bacterial Pneumonia

Imaging Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia

Imaging Viral Pneumonia

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