Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found within the leaves of a shrub, Erythroxylon coca. The earliest reported use of cocaine dates back to times when the ancient inhabitants of Peru used the leaves for religious ceremonies. Cocaine was first isolated from the coca leaf in 1859. Its first use as a local anesthetic was reported in 1884. In the late 19th century, Sigmund Freud proposed cocaine for the treatment of depression, cachexia, and asthma. It later became prescribed for almost any illness and could be found in numerous tonics. In 1885, John Styth Pemberton registered a cocaine-containing drink in the United States. This drink was later named Coca-Cola. In 1914, the Harrison Narcotics Act banned all nonprescription use of cocaine. Finally, in 1970, the Controlled Substances Act prohibited the possession of cocaine in the United States, except for limited medical uses.
Cocaine may be abused through a number of different routes. The most widespread routes of administration include inhaling (snorting), subcutaneous injection (skin popping), intravenous injection (shooting-up), and smoking (freebasing or smoking crack). Because of poor absorption and significant first-pass metabolism, cocaine is rarely ingested.
Cocaine abuse is associated with numerous detrimental health effects. All organ systems can be adversely affected by its use. Cocaine-related psychiatric disorders have been well-documented in the literature.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) recognizes substance related disorders resulting from the use of ten separate classes of drugs: alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens (phencyclidine or similarly acting arylcyclohexylamines), other hallucinogens such as LSD, inhalants, opioids, sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics, stimulants (including amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, and other stimulants), tobacco, and other or unknown substances.
There are 5 categories of stimulant-related disorders according to DSM-5.
They are as follows:
Stimulant use disorder
Other stimulant-induced disorders
Unspecified stimulant-related disorder