Tuesday, February 7, 2023

Adnexal Tumors

Background

The normal functioning ovary produces a follicular cyst 6-7 times each year. In most cases, these functional cysts are self-limiting and resolve within the duration of a normal menstrual cycle. In rare situations, a cyst persists longer or becomes enlarged. At this point, it represents a pathological adnexal mass.

Adnexal masses present a diagnostic dilemma; the differential diagnosis is extensive, and most masses are benign.
However, without histopathologic tissue diagnosis, a definitive diagnosis is generally precluded. Physicians must evaluate the likelihood of a concerning pathologic process using clinical and radiologic information and balance the risk of surgical intervention for a benign versus malignant process.

Since ovaries produce physiologic cysts in menstruating women, the likelihood of a benign process is higher in women of reproductive age. In contrast, the presence of an adnexal mass in prepubertal girls and postmenopausal women heightens the risk of a malignant neoplastic etiology.

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