Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a nonenveloped double-stranded DNA virus and member of the Papovaviridae family. HPV has a predilection for differentiating squamous epithelium, where it infects and transforms host cells. HPV-related cellular aberrancies in females are concentrated in the squamocolumnar region of the ectocervix, making this region ideal site for diagnostic sampling. Although over 100 strands of HPV have been identified, 35 have been shown to infect the genital epithelium.
Reference ranges, based on the test, are listed below.
Signal amplification DNA-based assays: The Hybrid Capture II
Results show the ratio of the specimen reactivity to the positive control mean. A result is considered to be positive if its reactivity is at least that of the positive control.
Polymerase chain reaction
Amplified DNA from cells harboring human papillomavirus are used as positive controls. Tested samples are compared to the positive controls to determine positivity.