Retrograde pyelography is used by many urologists to visualize the ureters and collecting system of the kidney. The procedure involves introducing contrast into the urinary system in a retrograde fashion with simultaneous imaging using dynamic fluoroscopy. This procedure is performed with cystoscopy by placement of an endoscopic camera via the urethra into the bladder.
Normally, urine is produced in the kidney and travels down the ureter in an antegrade fashion and is then stored in the bladder. The term retrograde is used in reference to the direction the contrast is introduced.