Copper levels can be evaluated to help diagnose several disease processes. These conditions may be monitored by looking at the total copper, the free serum copper, 24-hour urine copper, and liver biopsy copper concentrations. Serum ceruloplasmin is also a valuable test and can be used to determine the free serum copper.
Copper reference ranges are as follows:
Free serum copper: 1.6-2.4 μmol/L or 10-15μg/dL
Total copper: 10-22 μmol/L or 63.7-140.12 μg/dL
Serum ceruloplasmin: 2.83-5.50 μmol/L or 18-35 μg/dL
24-hour urine copper 0.3-0.8 μmol or 20-50 μg
Liver copper 0.3-0.8 μmol/g of tissue or 20-50 μg/g of tissue