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Cardiovascular System Anatomy


The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, which is an anatomical pump, with its intricate conduits (arteries, veins, and capillaries) that traverse the whole human body carrying blood. The blood contains oxygen, nutrients, wastes, and immune and other functional cells that help provide for homeostasis and basic functions of human cells and organs.

The pumping action of the heart usually maintains a balance between cardiac output and venous return. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute. The normal adult blood volume is 5 liters (a little over 1 gallon) and it usually passes through the heart once a minute. Note that cardiac output varies with the demands of the body.

The cardiac cycle refers to events that occur during one heart beat and is split into ventricular systole (contraction/ejection phase) and diastole (relaxation/filling phase). A normal heart rate is approximately 72 beats/minute, and the cardiac cycle spreads over 0.8 seconds. The heart sounds transmitted are due to closing of heart valves, and abnormal heart sounds, called murmurs, usually represent valve incompetency or abnormalities.

Blood is transported through the whole body by a continuum of blood vessels. Arteries are blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart, and veins transport the blood back to the heart. Capillaries carry blood to tissue cells and are the exchange sites of nutrients, gases, wastes, etc.


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