Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory, multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, and although it predominantly affects the lungs, sarcoidosis often has ophthalmologic manifestations. In addition to the disease’s pulmonary and ocular signs, other organ systems may be affected as well, including the skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, heart, central and peripheral nervous systems, musculoskeletal system, and salivary glands.
Sarcoidosis is diagnosed when the classic clinical and radiologic findings are supported by histologic evidence of widespread noncaseating epithelioid granulomata. Although best known for its thoracic involvement, the ocular, neurologic, and extrapulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis may cause significant complications, including blindness, meningitis, arthritis, renal disease, systemic morbidity, dermatitis, and death.
Consultation with a pulmonologist may be helpful in cases of possible ophthalmic sarcoidosis or neurosarcoid to aid in the diagnosis (eg, bronchoscopy with biopsy) and to coordinate therapy.