Ichthyosis refers to a relatively uncommon group of skin disorders characterized by the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales. It is regarded as a disorder of keratinization or cornification, and it is due to abnormal epidermal differentiation or metabolism.
The ichthyosiform dermatoses may be classified according to clinical manifestations, genetic presentation,
and histologic findings. Inherited and acquired forms of ichthyosis have been described, and ocular alterations may occur in specific subtypes. Five distinct types of inherited ichthyosis are noted, as follows: ichthyosis vulgaris, lamellar ichthyosis, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, and X-linked ichthyosis.