Intracranial hemorrhage (ie, the pathological accumulation of blood within the cranial vault) may occur within brain parenchyma or the surrounding meningeal spaces. Hemorrhage within the meninges or the associated potential spaces, including epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, is covered in detail in other articles. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and extension of parenchymal bleeding into the ventricles (ie, intraventricular hemorrhage [IVH]) are detailed here.
Intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for 8-13% of all strokes and results from a wide spectrum of disorders. Intracerebral hemorrhage is more likely to result in death or major disability than ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Intracerebral hemorrhage and accompanying edema may disrupt or compress adjacent brain tissue, leading to neurological dysfunction. Substantial displacement of brain parenchyma may cause elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) and potentially fatal herniation syndromes.