Lipoid proteinosis is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by the deposition of an amorphous hyaline material in the skin, mucosa, and viscera. The classic manifestation is onset in infancy with a hoarse cry due to laryngeal infiltration. Skin and mucous membrane changes become apparent clinically, and the disease typically follows a slowly progressive, yet often benign, course. Virtually any organ may be involved, but visceral involvement rarely leads to clinically significant consequences. The exceptions are involvement of the central nervous system and respiratory tract, which may result in seizures and airway obstruction, respectively. Lifespan is otherwise normal.
Lipoid proteinosis has been linked to mutations in the gene encoding extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1).
To date, no effective treatment is known.
See the image below.
Adult male with lipoid proteinosis. His leonine facies appearance is a result of diffuse skin infiltration. Courtesy of Kenneth E. Greer, MD.